Hyperactive Ras in developmental disorders and cancer

Ras genes are the most typical targets for somatic gain-of-function mutations in human cancer. Recently, germline mutations that have an effect on elements of the Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated and extracellular– sign regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular sign–regulated kinase (ERK) pathway had been proven to trigger a number of developmental disorders, together with Noonan, Costello and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndromes. Many of those mutant alleles encode proteins with aberrant

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